I Spy Stage 5 & 6

Mula dengan main stage 4, pilih perkataan sikit dulu yang hanya ada 3 bunyi sahaja. eg ‘book’; b-oo-k. Ulang beginning sound dan ending sound kemudian tumpukan kepada middle sound ‘oo’ dan sebut semua bunyi ikut urutan, b-oo-k. Ulang dengan perkataan lain (3 bunyi) dan gradually naikkan kepada 4 bunyi perkataan kemudian 5 bunyi perkataan. Setiap kali analayse middle sound dan sebut semua bunyi ikut urutan.

*mula-mula guna beberapa objek yang beginning dan ending sound sama, middle sound lain. Kemudian, beginning dan ending sound yang lain-lain.

 

 

Sandpaper Letter

(Ni tak ikut warna yang digunakan dalam Montessori. Sepatutnya vowels-biru, consonant-merah, double letters-hijau)

Akhirnya, siap DIY sandpaper letters. Download dari sini. Tapi nak buat juga untuk double letters. Jadi rupanya boleh buat sendiri je. Download font Primer Print, di website dia juga ada atau boleh google juga. Buka Microsoft Windows dan taip saiz 500. Otherwise, untuk double letters, boleh download sini.

Seiring dengan stage 3 I-Spy/Sound Games, dah boleh kenalkan Sandpaper Letters. Tujuan sandpaper letters adalah untuk associate bunyi-bunyi yang mereka belajar dengan simbolnya. Kalau ikut Buku Gettman, double letters/phonogram dikenalkan bersama-sama dengan 26 huruf yang kita tahu. Phonogram di sini bermaksud, gabungan dua huruf yang mana bila bergabung menghasilkan bunyi yang lain, contoh, ch, sh. Jadi kalau ikut cara dalam buku Gettman kenalkan satu huruf vowel, satu huruf consonant dan satu double letters. Maximum 3 huruf setiap masa.

Presentation

  • Namakan Sandpaper Letters, tunjuk mana disimpan, pilih satu consonant, satu vowel dan satu double letters dengan bentuk yang beza. (cth i, f, oy). Letak di atas meja yang mana boleh duduk bersama-sama.
  • Sensitise jari kita dan jari kanak-kanak. (Setiap aktiviti Montessori yang menggunakan sentuhan perlu sensitise jari).
  • Tunjukkan macamana nak sentuh, “using a light continuous touch of the index and middle fingers of the dominant hand.” seperti video di bawah:

  • Main aktiviti I Spy stage 3, guna satu bunyi dari salah satu 3 sandpapers.
  • “Would you like to see what sound () looks like?”
  • Letak sandpaper letter tu betul-betul depan kita dan kanak-kanak. Sebut bunyi huruf sambil trace huruf. Ulang.
  • Dan ulang untuk kedua-dua huruf kemudian buat 3-period lesson. Selepas kenalkan ketiga-tiga dan kanak-kanak ikut buat, ulang semula main I Spy stage 3 untuk ketiga-tiga bunyi.

Exercise 1) Kenalkan semua sandpaper letters sehingga kanak-kanak ingat semua.

Exercise 2) Main semua stage I Spy, tapi instead of just sebut bunyi huruf, tunjuk board. “I spy with my little eye something that begins with…” (tunjuk satu board).

 

Kerja?

Kenapa dalam Montessori sebut kanak-kanak tengah buat ‘kerja’ dan mereka sendiri pun diberitahu setiap aktiviti yang mereka buat dalam persekitaran Montessori ‘kerja’?

“Montessori believed that the young child ‘at play’, whether on the playground, at home, or in pre-sechool, has most of the same feelings and needs as an adult ‘at work’. – Gettman

 

Scope of Sequence & Record Keeping Period 1

Untuk Homeschool Montessori di rumah, tak mungkin kita boleh buat sama seperti di sekolah Montessori sebab biasanya tak cukup ruang dan materials (apparatus Montessori mahal T_T) untuk sediakan setiap shelf bagi setiap 5 subjek. Jadi biasanya kita rotate trays di shelf yang ada dan peringkat-peringkat yang tersenarai dalam buku Gettman sangat membantu. Membantu dari segi ‘kerja’ apa untuk letak di shelf dan kenalkan. I hope I make sense. ^^;

Ada peringkat-peringkat untuk dikenalkan aktiviti-aktiviti Montessori pada kanak-kanak. Dalam buku Gettman, beliau bahagikan sehingga 7 period. Tak kira untuk kanak-kanak yang baru mula 2.5 tahun atau older children yang baru mula. Yang older children mungkin dapat buat setiap lesson dengan laju. Ada aktiviti yang perlu mahir dahulu sebelum mahir sebelumnya. Yang paling penting, ikut keperluan anak dan minat mereka. Juga take note, ini juga hanyalah guide. Setiap perkembangan anak adalah berbeza.

Period 1 banyak fokus pada practical life. Untuk practical life tidak terhad pada apa yang disenaraikan. Yang penting, rutin dan cara kita di rumah dan juga ikut budaya dan agama. Apa-apa yang kita buat di rumah, mereka ikut serta. Contoh, basuh pinggan mangkuk, basuh baju dsb.

Senarai di bawah ambil rujukan dari buku Gettman, di Montessori Trails, lain-lain scope and sequence dan record keeping yang jumpa di Google yang disesuaikan untuk Aqeel, yang nak masuk 27 bulan. PS me: Remember to follow his lead and to look out for his sensitive period.

 

 

Decimal Systems

Bahan-bahan untuk mula Decimal Systems.

1. Beads

Beads beli di AliExpress. Dalam 2 minggu sampai. Alhamdulillah puas hati. Termurah yang jumpa. Dalam Rm70. Sesiapa yang rajin boleh DIY. Diri sendiri dah pernah DIY 10-beads dan ada yang print kertas cube jadi thousand, tapi tak puas dan tak sama dan anak-anak nak handle susah. So at least nak adalah satu yang real punya, untuk mereka rasa dan lihat yang betul, dan yang lain mungkin boleh guna yang DIY untuk ganti. Boleh search google DIY Golden Beads.

DIY Thousand Cube Printable

2. Kad nombor

Boleh di download di The Helpful Garden. Satu set print saiz biasa. Dua set print saiz kecil (pdf boleh setting multiple 2 pages). First time print muatkan 4 page ke dalam satu page tapi cam kecik sangat.

 

Album: Montessori Commons

Sensitive Periods untuk 2 tahun

Montessori kenalpasti ada beberapa sensitive periods untuk umur 0-6 tahun. Bila ibubapa atau cikgu tahu dan ambil peluang masa sensitive period ni, kita boleh bantu perkembangan mereka dengan lebih berkesan. Macamana nak tahu kanak-kanak ni ‘tengah’ sensitive periods? Dengan kita observe mereka dan take notes. Kita boleh nampak behavior mereka terhadap satu-satu perkara tu, mereka ulang dan ulang dan ulang, contoh Aqeel sekarang asyik ambil dan baca buku shapes, kalau keluar mesti tunjuk tu shapes apa ni shapes apa. Jadi kita cepat-cepat ambil peluang dan sediakan aktiviti yang seronok berkaitan dengan shapes untuk mereka. Ciri-ciri lain mereka dalam sensitive period, mimicking, intense concentration, and compulsive or obsessive behaviours. (here)

Jadi untuk Aqeel yang sekarang ni 2 tahun 2 bulan, sensitive periodsnya:

Bahasa: Hingga umur 3 tahun, sensitive pada spoken language. Use of words to communicate: a progression from babble to words to phrases to sentences, with a continuously expanding vocabulary and comprehension. Aqeel sekarang expand vocab dengan tanya apa ni? Apa ni? Support perkembangan bahasa di rumah dengan kita bercakap dengan anak-anak dalam bahasa yang betul dan clear, menyanyi, membaca bersama dan dengar betul-betul apa yang mereka cuba sampaikan keperluan mereka. Aqeel sekarang ni tengah kemuncak dia punya sensitive pada bahasa. He communicates his needs and tries, imitates his sister and brother’s speaks, boleh buat ayat 3-4 perkataan.

Order (0-4): Order bantu develop reasoning skills, organise information, dan memahami persekitaran mereka. Ciri-ciri sensitive pada order yang kita boleh lihat, mereka INGIN konsisten, ulang-ulang dan rutin. Masa sensitive period ni mereka lebih berminat putting things in order and packing things away, than they are in playing with their toys. Untuk bantu sensitive period pada order ni, kita buat peraturan, rutin, dan sediakan persekitaran yang teratur contohnya mainan ada kotak-kotak simpan, tempat buku, tempat pensil warna, tempat letak kasut.

Pergerakan: 2tahun, mereka lebih pada refinement and coordination of movement. Masa ni mereka mula pegang barang-barang guna 2 tangan, develop the pincer grip, and control and coordinate movement.

Untuk bantu fine and gross motor skills, it is important to provide your child with regular visits to the park or an outdoor environment. At home, you can encourage sensitive periods for movement by providing your child with opportunities to practice tasks, such as drawing or writing, washing hands, threading, and jumping.

Music (2-6): When music is part of his everyday life, your child will show spontaneous interest in the development of pitch, ryhthm and melody.

Toilet training (18m-3): As her nervous system become better developed and integrated, your child will learn to control her bladder and bowels.

Grace & Courtesy (2-6): Your child will love to imitate polite and considerate behaviour leading to an internalisation of these qualities into her personality.

Senses (2-6): Sensory education begins at birth but from 2 your child will be fascinated with sensorial experiences (taste, sound, touch & smell). This period of sensitivity can be characterised by a child’s fascination with sensorial experiences such as touch, taste, sight and smell.

The first phase of sensory awareness, sensitivity to small objects, occurs from one to three years of age. This period can be characterised by a child’s fixation with small objects and tiny details. The completion of this phase indicates that an understanding of order and detail are coming together in the child’s mind.

The second sensitivity phase, sensorial exploration and classification, occurs from 2.5 to 6 years. This phase can be classified by an intense desire to take part in learning experiences that integrate the senses. These experiences provide children with a system to classify objects within their environment.

To support sensory sensitivity, it is important to provide your child with vast opportunities to explore and observe their environment using their senses. At home, you could provide your child with opportunities to group objects with similar traits, describe materials with different textures, and practice sensory based games like ‘I Spy.’

 

 

Sumber, Sumber

 

Montessori Addition?

We’ve been stucked with golden beads. Hana macam tak suka buat golden beads, (in fact dia macam tak suka shelf works 2-3 minggu ni). Jadi tengah fikirkan apa next step nak introduce selepas golden beads. Mungkin addition? Kalau ikut scope of sequence dari Montessori Compass, simple addition, sums of 5 dan sums of 10, guna number rods. Tapi bila godek album-album lain macam tak ada?

PS: Montessori Album adalah manual macamana kita nak persembahkan kepada kanak-kanak. Bukan silibus.

Hmm. Memang takde. Bila cari Montessori addition, pelik semua mula dengan golden beads. Ok, jadi carilah pula golden beads addition. Eh, semua 1234+1945 camtu??? Nombor besar semuanya? Addition dengan nombor besar?! Tak percaya dan carilah maklumat di Group Montessori Homeschooling dan jumpa ni.

Ada orang tanya dan wonder samalah macam saya tertanya-tanya ni. Takde ke dalam album yang buat simple tambah dan tolak? Sebab tengok scope of sequence, guna nombor besar mula 4.5 tahun, addition camtu mula 5 thn. Ni jawapan:

“I think you are looking for the memorization work – which focuses on the “math facts”. Montessori starts with the big picture because once the children can count from 1-9 and understand the concept of 0, they can work with any number of ANY size – each category (units, tens, hundreds, thousands, can only have up to 9 in that category – then add 1 more in that category and instead of “10” we have “1” of the next category up. This is actually a very simple concept for the children to master, especially at 4 1/4 or so years of age.

Moving into the memorization work on the basic math facts is a mental exercise that works best when the child already understands the operations, how numbers work together and why the memorization might be a helpful thing. Without this earlier work, memorization remains a simple rote numbering with little to no actual meaning. The materials themselves, even in Montessori are much closer to abstract than to the concrete golden beads they have been working with. ” – Jessica Welsh

“The first introduction would be using the golden bead material. The child would gather 8 beads and 5 beads. And then when counting when they get to 10, they would exchange those for a 10 bar. Then they would be left with 3 beads so their answer would be “1 ten and 3 units”.

Using the tens seguin board, they would learn that “1 ten and 3 units” is 13.

Later they would use the addition strip board and addition tables to memorize their math facts, finally learning 8+5=13.”

Tengok gambar di sini untuk lebih jelas.

First Plane of Development

First plane of Development bermula dari lahir hingga lebih kurang umur 6 tahun. Di peringkat ni kanak-kanak adalah sensory explorers, explore dunia mereka dengan penglihatan, bunyi, bau, rasa dan sentuhan. Mereka belajar untuk berdikari di persekitaran mereka dan komuniti. Mereka juga membina intellect mereka sendiri dengan menyerap (absorb) semua aspek persekitaran, bahasa dan budaya di sekeliling mereka.

Pada setiap plane of development, ada satu-satu masa di mana kanak-kanak menunjukkan minat yang mendalam pada sesuatu aktiviti atau aspek dalam persekitaran. Masa ni Montessori namakan sensitive periods for learning. Contoh, sensitive period untuk bahasa aktif semasa first plane of development iaitu dari lahir hingga 6 tahun. Sensitive period ni membolehkan kanak-kanak belajar bahasa dengan mudah dan seronok. Jika, atas apapun sebab, kanak-kanak tidak belajar bercakap masa ni, sensitive period ni hilang dan pembelajaran bahasa kemudian akan memerlukan usaha yang lebih. Montessori acknowledge ini dan sediakan persekitaran, bahan-bahan dan aktiviti-aktiviti yang membantu kanak-kanak di sensitive period.

Ciri-ciri kanak-kanak di First Plane of Development (read more)

  • They become functionally independent; they learn to control their movement, to communicate and to work with their hands.
  • Development is shaped by the special capacity children of this age have for learning and absorbing vast amounts of information, called absorbent mind.
  • Without being conscious they are learning, children ‘absorb’ impressions from the environment, impressions that construct their mind and intellect and enable them to adapt to their time and place in history.
  • They experience periods during which they display heightened sensitivity to, or interest in, particular aspects of the environment, sensitive periods (windows of opportunity during which children’s intense interest, and the spontaneous activity this interest generates, enable children to learn the corresponding knowledge and skill with ease and enjoyment)
  • Montessori educators observe children closely for signs of sensitive periods. They use these observations as a guide to help them choose the optimum time for offering children lessons and activities in, for example, social skills, the refinement of movement and sensory perception, language and mathematics.
  • Time for enormous physical development (By the age of six, they can talk and communicate their needs; they can walk, climb, run and jump by themselves, feed and dress themselves and manage their own toileting.)
  • Social and emotional development
  • Mental development
  • Babies are born with a strong urge to communicate and to express themselves. By age six children have
    acquired language, not only spoken language, but also the fundamental skills of writing and reading.
  • At the same time children are using a mathematical mind as evidenced by their need for order and sequence and the drive for precision and accuracy. During the first six years of life children construct a foundation for later studies in arithmetic and geometry.

Senarai di bawah ambil dari sini:

Social Development 

0-3

  • Individuation, the “birth” of the ego or self
  • Trust in people and the environment
  • Independence, achieved by being able to walk, talk, eat table food, use the toilet, etc.
  • Social adaptation

Acquisition of spoken language, including dialect and gesture, ethnic idiosyncrasies, cultural values, social
attitudes and behaviors, etc. are all absorbed by the infant effortlessly from experiences within society ’s first
representative, the family. Montessori called this incarnation (Absorbent Mind 25) and suggested that it serves an adaptive purpose.

3-6

  • Self-discipline
  • Increased independence derived from new skills and competencies
  • Knowledge of appropriate and specific social behaviors
  • Patience and the ability to share
  • Respect for others
  • A willingness to abide by rules to create social order

Moral Development
0-3

  • Nourishment of the human spirit by a warm and protective family atmosphere
  • Internalization of ethical behavior patterns, empathic attitudes, religious and positive cultural values, etc.
  • Perseverance, good work habits
  • Ability to choose
  • Self-discipline
  • Independence
  • Mental balance
  • Sublimation of the possessive instinct
  • Care and respect for the environment and for others
  • Willingness to abide by rules to create social order

At the end of the period, we find the awakening of conscience, the inner voice combined with a kind of moral
intelligence that has been internalized from the order of the external environment. Somewhere between six and
seven, children become conscious of this inner voice. Meanwhile, they have acquired the ability to obey and, by
the time they are six, their obedience usually can be depended on. They begin to be responsible and feel a sense of duty. They can now listen and pay attention (Mario M. Montessori, The Child Before 7). In most countries, formal education begins at this age.
Yet, says Mario M. Montessori, “Whether we realize it or not, the subconscious of the child is a much more
powerful agent for good, beauty, and religion than any conscious teaching later on. You cannot impart spirituality to seven-year-olds by teaching moral precepts” (“Dr. Maria Montessori” 58)

Cognitive Development

0-3

  • The creation of mind
  • The acquisition of spoken language
  • Development of memory, the power to understand, the ability to think and move intentionally.
  • Formation of consciousness, self-awareness, ego

The unconscious absorbent mind, paired with the sensitive periods, creates the very mind of the human being in the first phase. The potentialities created — intellect, memory, reason, will, etc. — are expanded and refined in the second period.

3-6

  • The clarification and classification of impressions absorbed in the first period (“bringing order into the chaos”)
  • Increase in knowledge/vocabulary
  • Refinement of sense perception/discrimination
  • Logical/linear thinking
  • New skills and competencies
  • Sustained interest
  • Augmentation of intellect

Emotional Development

0-3

  • The establishment of close emotional ties with the adult caregiver
  • A sense of security and safety within the family
  • The first level of personality integration
  • Feelings of gratitude, trust, and respect for significant adults
  • Feelings of adequacy, autonomy, independence, and confidence

When the right conditions meet the child ’s need for love and security, then with the second phase (3-6),
manifestations are further articulated and advanced as the child enters a Montessori Casa dei Bambini. In this
environment, children can concentrate their energies on constructive activities. When children work in this way,
they demonstrate:

  • pleasure in purposeful activity
  • serenity, calmness, satisfaction, emotional equilibrium
  • happiness, joy
  • an anxious concern for life
  • love for people and things
  • emotional wellness
  • warm, expressive, outgoing, and optimistic personalities

Such children have already begun to make a positive adaptation to their world and have discovered how to find
happiness, spiritually and physically, in the conditions of that world. A kind of emotional intelligence has been
created, which will hopefully serve t hem throughout the coming stages of life.

Four Planes of Development

Melalui pemerhatian teliti dan kajian, Maria Montessori kenalpasti yang manusia melalui perubahan dan perkembangan dalam 4 peringkat. Bermula lahir hingga matang, umur 24 tahun. Ia dianggap holistik kerana merangkumi perkembangan manusia dalam akademik, spiritual, moral dan emosi. Setiap peringkat tu manusia melalui perkembangan ikut pattern yang sama; yang mana ianya berlaku secara ‘spurts’ not a slow and gradual increase.

I have found that in his development, the child passes through certain phases, each of which has its own particular needs. The characteristics of each are so different that the passages from one phase to another have been described by certain psychologists as ‘rebirths’. (Montessori, “The Four Planes of Education”, p.1, reprinted in 2004)”

Untuk lebih jelas, beliau gambarkan perkembangan seperti di bawah:


Image from: Stepping Stone Montessori School

develops first through a series of progressions followed by a series of regressions. Each stage also has a pinnacle that indicates the time when the characteristics of each period are clearly exhibited in the child. Montessori compared this progress to a “series of rebirths” (Absorbent Mind, 17).”

Dengan mengetahui perkembangan anak-anak di setiap peringkat, dapat kita ibu-ibu dan ayah-ayah bantu sediakan persekitaran yang sesuai dengan perkembangannya.

Setiap peringkat ini, ada faktor dan fokus tertentu. Pada 3 tahun pertama setiap peringkat, fokusnya adalah pengenalan, pemerhatian, indirect learning dan information gathering. 3 tahun yang seterusnya adalah untuk mengasah atau sempurnakan skills yang sebelumnya.

Ambil contoh first plane, pada permulaan setiap peringkat, perkembangan tu boleh nampak dengan ketara dan intense (0-3 tahun) sehingga kemuncak (3 tahun) dan  perkembangan tu perlahan dan kanak-kanak lebih stabil untuk bersedia ke peringkat seterusnya. Masa lahir kanak-kanak hanya mempunyai sedikit koordinasi dan penggunaan otot, tapi pada umur  3 tahun dah boleh berjalan, berlari dan lompat sedikit. Pada 6 tahun, boleh berlumba, lompat, sepak dan tangkap bola. Ya  6-7 tahun ke atas mereka masih belajar lagi untuk better control tapi ianya bukan lagi fokus utama peringkat itu. Setiap peringkat tu seperti permulaan yang baru bagi manusia, yang menunjukkan ciri-ciri, keperluan, tingkah laku yang baru.

Jika lihat carta, peringkat pertama dan ketiga tu warna hitam, kerana kedua-dua peringkat tu ada persamaan yang mana menunjukkan perubahan yang ketara dan banyak keperluan. Peringkat kedua dan keempat juga sama, mereka menunjukkan perkembangan yang lebih sihat, stabil dan kuat.

Dan pendapat sendiri untuk Haris, masa dia 6-7 tahun, boleh nampak perkembangan ketara dari personaliti, way of thinking, juga fizikal.

Secara ringkasnya, quoting here:

First Plane of Development: Infancy (0-6 years): children are sensorial explorers absorbing every aspect of their environment.

  • Characterized by the “Absorbent Mind” in which the child‟s mind is like a sponge, absorbing all that is in the environment.
  • At age 0-3 this is unconscious
  • At age 3-6 this is conscious
  • Characterized by “Sensitive Periods” which include the intense need for: Order, Language, Refinement of the senses and Movement
  • Characterized by concrete thinking
  • Construction of the physical person
  • Fundamental formation of the character
  • Physical independence – “I can do it myself!”
  • The child wants to be free to work independently within a structured environment doing real activities with an intelligent purpose.

Second Plane of Development: Childhood (6-12 years): children are exploring their world through abstraction and imagination. They use their knowledge to discover and expand their world.

  • Characterized by reasoning with imagination and logic.
  • Intense thirst for knowledge which is so great that if allowed, the child will seek exposure to many things that have been left to high school and college in the past.
  • “Cosmic Education” – the child wants to know about the whole and his/her place within it and can appreciate the interconnectedness of all things and people.
  • The “bridge” to abstraction – or the transition from concrete to abstract thinking
  • Interested in learning about the universe – what is outside of the prepared environment.
  • Intellectual independence – “I can „think it‟ myself”

Third Plane of Development: Adolescence (12-18 years): they are interested in understanding themselves and their place in the society. They look for an opportunity to contribute to the society.

  • Characterized by self concern and self assessment.
  • Critical thinking and re-evaluation.
  • Transition period both physically and mentally.
  • Beginning to try to find place in this world.
  • Characterized by construction of social and moral values.
  • “Erd Kinder” or “Children of the Land” – Dr. Montessori envisioned the child practicing for life in society by working together in a sort of hostel.
  • Cultural development which has been ongoing is solidified in this plane.
  • Financial Independence – “I can get it myself”.

Fourth Plane of Development: Adulthood (18-24 years): as young adults, they are preparing to take command of their own lives.

  • Characterized by construction of the spiritual.
  • Conscious discernment of right and wrong.
  • Seeking to know one‟s own place within the world.
  • Emotional Independence “I can stand on my own”.

 

Montessori juga perasan yang dalam peringkat-peringkat ni ada sensitive periods yang mana maklumat atau apa yang diajar tu diterima dan dipelajari dengan mudahnya (almost effortlessly absorbed) dan akan jadi susah untuk dipelajari kemudiannya (bila dah melepasi sensitive periods ni).

Seterusnya dalam Perlu Tahu untuk bantu perkembangan anak-anak ikut kaedah Montessori adalah Sensitive Periods

PS: Aqeel sekarang berada di 1st half of first plane, Hana di 2nd half of first plane, Haris the 1st half of 2nd plane.