Montessori Addition?

We’ve been stucked with golden beads. Hana macam tak suka buat golden beads, (in fact dia macam tak suka shelf works 2-3 minggu ni). Jadi tengah fikirkan apa next step nak introduce selepas golden beads. Mungkin addition? Kalau ikut scope of sequence dari Montessori Compass, simple addition, sums of 5 dan sums of 10, guna number rods. Tapi bila godek album-album lain macam tak ada?

PS: Montessori Album adalah manual macamana kita nak persembahkan kepada kanak-kanak. Bukan silibus.

Hmm. Memang takde. Bila cari Montessori addition, pelik semua mula dengan golden beads. Ok, jadi carilah pula golden beads addition. Eh, semua 1234+1945 camtu??? Nombor besar semuanya? Addition dengan nombor besar?! Tak percaya dan carilah maklumat di Group Montessori Homeschooling dan jumpa ni.

Ada orang tanya dan wonder samalah macam saya tertanya-tanya ni. Takde ke dalam album yang buat simple tambah dan tolak? Sebab tengok scope of sequence, guna nombor besar mula 4.5 tahun, addition camtu mula 5 thn. Ni jawapan:

“I think you are looking for the memorization work – which focuses on the “math facts”. Montessori starts with the big picture because once the children can count from 1-9 and understand the concept of 0, they can work with any number of ANY size – each category (units, tens, hundreds, thousands, can only have up to 9 in that category – then add 1 more in that category and instead of “10” we have “1” of the next category up. This is actually a very simple concept for the children to master, especially at 4 1/4 or so years of age.

Moving into the memorization work on the basic math facts is a mental exercise that works best when the child already understands the operations, how numbers work together and why the memorization might be a helpful thing. Without this earlier work, memorization remains a simple rote numbering with little to no actual meaning. The materials themselves, even in Montessori are much closer to abstract than to the concrete golden beads they have been working with. ” – Jessica Welsh

“The first introduction would be using the golden bead material. The child would gather 8 beads and 5 beads. And then when counting when they get to 10, they would exchange those for a 10 bar. Then they would be left with 3 beads so their answer would be “1 ten and 3 units”.

Using the tens seguin board, they would learn that “1 ten and 3 units” is 13.

Later they would use the addition strip board and addition tables to memorize their math facts, finally learning 8+5=13.”

Tengok gambar di sini untuk lebih jelas.

First Plane of Development

First plane of Development bermula dari lahir hingga lebih kurang umur 6 tahun. Di peringkat ni kanak-kanak adalah sensory explorers, explore dunia mereka dengan penglihatan, bunyi, bau, rasa dan sentuhan. Mereka belajar untuk berdikari di persekitaran mereka dan komuniti. Mereka juga membina intellect mereka sendiri dengan menyerap (absorb) semua aspek persekitaran, bahasa dan budaya di sekeliling mereka.

Pada setiap plane of development, ada satu-satu masa di mana kanak-kanak menunjukkan minat yang mendalam pada sesuatu aktiviti atau aspek dalam persekitaran. Masa ni Montessori namakan sensitive periods for learning. Contoh, sensitive period untuk bahasa aktif semasa first plane of development iaitu dari lahir hingga 6 tahun. Sensitive period ni membolehkan kanak-kanak belajar bahasa dengan mudah dan seronok. Jika, atas apapun sebab, kanak-kanak tidak belajar bercakap masa ni, sensitive period ni hilang dan pembelajaran bahasa kemudian akan memerlukan usaha yang lebih. Montessori acknowledge ini dan sediakan persekitaran, bahan-bahan dan aktiviti-aktiviti yang membantu kanak-kanak di sensitive period.

Ciri-ciri kanak-kanak di First Plane of Development (read more)

  • They become functionally independent; they learn to control their movement, to communicate and to work with their hands.
  • Development is shaped by the special capacity children of this age have for learning and absorbing vast amounts of information, called absorbent mind.
  • Without being conscious they are learning, children ‘absorb’ impressions from the environment, impressions that construct their mind and intellect and enable them to adapt to their time and place in history.
  • They experience periods during which they display heightened sensitivity to, or interest in, particular aspects of the environment, sensitive periods (windows of opportunity during which children’s intense interest, and the spontaneous activity this interest generates, enable children to learn the corresponding knowledge and skill with ease and enjoyment)
  • Montessori educators observe children closely for signs of sensitive periods. They use these observations as a guide to help them choose the optimum time for offering children lessons and activities in, for example, social skills, the refinement of movement and sensory perception, language and mathematics.
  • Time for enormous physical development (By the age of six, they can talk and communicate their needs; they can walk, climb, run and jump by themselves, feed and dress themselves and manage their own toileting.)
  • Social and emotional development
  • Mental development
  • Babies are born with a strong urge to communicate and to express themselves. By age six children have
    acquired language, not only spoken language, but also the fundamental skills of writing and reading.
  • At the same time children are using a mathematical mind as evidenced by their need for order and sequence and the drive for precision and accuracy. During the first six years of life children construct a foundation for later studies in arithmetic and geometry.

Senarai di bawah ambil dari sini:

Social Development 


  • Individuation, the “birth” of the ego or self
  • Trust in people and the environment
  • Independence, achieved by being able to walk, talk, eat table food, use the toilet, etc.
  • Social adaptation

Acquisition of spoken language, including dialect and gesture, ethnic idiosyncrasies, cultural values, social
attitudes and behaviors, etc. are all absorbed by the infant effortlessly from experiences within society ’s first
representative, the family. Montessori called this incarnation (Absorbent Mind 25) and suggested that it serves an adaptive purpose.


  • Self-discipline
  • Increased independence derived from new skills and competencies
  • Knowledge of appropriate and specific social behaviors
  • Patience and the ability to share
  • Respect for others
  • A willingness to abide by rules to create social order

Moral Development

  • Nourishment of the human spirit by a warm and protective family atmosphere
  • Internalization of ethical behavior patterns, empathic attitudes, religious and positive cultural values, etc.
  • Perseverance, good work habits
  • Ability to choose
  • Self-discipline
  • Independence
  • Mental balance
  • Sublimation of the possessive instinct
  • Care and respect for the environment and for others
  • Willingness to abide by rules to create social order

At the end of the period, we find the awakening of conscience, the inner voice combined with a kind of moral
intelligence that has been internalized from the order of the external environment. Somewhere between six and
seven, children become conscious of this inner voice. Meanwhile, they have acquired the ability to obey and, by
the time they are six, their obedience usually can be depended on. They begin to be responsible and feel a sense of duty. They can now listen and pay attention (Mario M. Montessori, The Child Before 7). In most countries, formal education begins at this age.
Yet, says Mario M. Montessori, “Whether we realize it or not, the subconscious of the child is a much more
powerful agent for good, beauty, and religion than any conscious teaching later on. You cannot impart spirituality to seven-year-olds by teaching moral precepts” (“Dr. Maria Montessori” 58)

Cognitive Development


  • The creation of mind
  • The acquisition of spoken language
  • Development of memory, the power to understand, the ability to think and move intentionally.
  • Formation of consciousness, self-awareness, ego

The unconscious absorbent mind, paired with the sensitive periods, creates the very mind of the human being in the first phase. The potentialities created — intellect, memory, reason, will, etc. — are expanded and refined in the second period.


  • The clarification and classification of impressions absorbed in the first period (“bringing order into the chaos”)
  • Increase in knowledge/vocabulary
  • Refinement of sense perception/discrimination
  • Logical/linear thinking
  • New skills and competencies
  • Sustained interest
  • Augmentation of intellect

Emotional Development


  • The establishment of close emotional ties with the adult caregiver
  • A sense of security and safety within the family
  • The first level of personality integration
  • Feelings of gratitude, trust, and respect for significant adults
  • Feelings of adequacy, autonomy, independence, and confidence

When the right conditions meet the child ’s need for love and security, then with the second phase (3-6),
manifestations are further articulated and advanced as the child enters a Montessori Casa dei Bambini. In this
environment, children can concentrate their energies on constructive activities. When children work in this way,
they demonstrate:

  • pleasure in purposeful activity
  • serenity, calmness, satisfaction, emotional equilibrium
  • happiness, joy
  • an anxious concern for life
  • love for people and things
  • emotional wellness
  • warm, expressive, outgoing, and optimistic personalities

Such children have already begun to make a positive adaptation to their world and have discovered how to find
happiness, spiritually and physically, in the conditions of that world. A kind of emotional intelligence has been
created, which will hopefully serve t hem throughout the coming stages of life.

Four Planes of Development

Melalui pemerhatian teliti dan kajian, Maria Montessori kenalpasti yang manusia melalui perubahan dan perkembangan dalam 4 peringkat. Bermula lahir hingga matang, umur 24 tahun. Ia dianggap holistik kerana merangkumi perkembangan manusia dalam akademik, spiritual, moral dan emosi. Setiap peringkat tu manusia melalui perkembangan ikut pattern yang sama; yang mana ianya berlaku secara ‘spurts’ not a slow and gradual increase.

I have found that in his development, the child passes through certain phases, each of which has its own particular needs. The characteristics of each are so different that the passages from one phase to another have been described by certain psychologists as ‘rebirths’. (Montessori, “The Four Planes of Education”, p.1, reprinted in 2004)”

Untuk lebih jelas, beliau gambarkan perkembangan seperti di bawah:

Image from: Stepping Stone Montessori School

develops first through a series of progressions followed by a series of regressions. Each stage also has a pinnacle that indicates the time when the characteristics of each period are clearly exhibited in the child. Montessori compared this progress to a “series of rebirths” (Absorbent Mind, 17).”

Dengan mengetahui perkembangan anak-anak di setiap peringkat, dapat kita ibu-ibu dan ayah-ayah bantu sediakan persekitaran yang sesuai dengan perkembangannya.

Setiap peringkat ini, ada faktor dan fokus tertentu. Pada 3 tahun pertama setiap peringkat, fokusnya adalah pengenalan, pemerhatian, indirect learning dan information gathering. 3 tahun yang seterusnya adalah untuk mengasah atau sempurnakan skills yang sebelumnya.

Ambil contoh first plane, pada permulaan setiap peringkat, perkembangan tu boleh nampak dengan ketara dan intense (0-3 tahun) sehingga kemuncak (3 tahun) dan  perkembangan tu perlahan dan kanak-kanak lebih stabil untuk bersedia ke peringkat seterusnya. Masa lahir kanak-kanak hanya mempunyai sedikit koordinasi dan penggunaan otot, tapi pada umur  3 tahun dah boleh berjalan, berlari dan lompat sedikit. Pada 6 tahun, boleh berlumba, lompat, sepak dan tangkap bola. Ya  6-7 tahun ke atas mereka masih belajar lagi untuk better control tapi ianya bukan lagi fokus utama peringkat itu. Setiap peringkat tu seperti permulaan yang baru bagi manusia, yang menunjukkan ciri-ciri, keperluan, tingkah laku yang baru.

Jika lihat carta, peringkat pertama dan ketiga tu warna hitam, kerana kedua-dua peringkat tu ada persamaan yang mana menunjukkan perubahan yang ketara dan banyak keperluan. Peringkat kedua dan keempat juga sama, mereka menunjukkan perkembangan yang lebih sihat, stabil dan kuat.

Dan pendapat sendiri untuk Haris, masa dia 6-7 tahun, boleh nampak perkembangan ketara dari personaliti, way of thinking, juga fizikal.

Secara ringkasnya, quoting here:

First Plane of Development: Infancy (0-6 years): children are sensorial explorers absorbing every aspect of their environment.

  • Characterized by the “Absorbent Mind” in which the child‟s mind is like a sponge, absorbing all that is in the environment.
  • At age 0-3 this is unconscious
  • At age 3-6 this is conscious
  • Characterized by “Sensitive Periods” which include the intense need for: Order, Language, Refinement of the senses and Movement
  • Characterized by concrete thinking
  • Construction of the physical person
  • Fundamental formation of the character
  • Physical independence – “I can do it myself!”
  • The child wants to be free to work independently within a structured environment doing real activities with an intelligent purpose.

Second Plane of Development: Childhood (6-12 years): children are exploring their world through abstraction and imagination. They use their knowledge to discover and expand their world.

  • Characterized by reasoning with imagination and logic.
  • Intense thirst for knowledge which is so great that if allowed, the child will seek exposure to many things that have been left to high school and college in the past.
  • “Cosmic Education” – the child wants to know about the whole and his/her place within it and can appreciate the interconnectedness of all things and people.
  • The “bridge” to abstraction – or the transition from concrete to abstract thinking
  • Interested in learning about the universe – what is outside of the prepared environment.
  • Intellectual independence – “I can „think it‟ myself”

Third Plane of Development: Adolescence (12-18 years): they are interested in understanding themselves and their place in the society. They look for an opportunity to contribute to the society.

  • Characterized by self concern and self assessment.
  • Critical thinking and re-evaluation.
  • Transition period both physically and mentally.
  • Beginning to try to find place in this world.
  • Characterized by construction of social and moral values.
  • “Erd Kinder” or “Children of the Land” – Dr. Montessori envisioned the child practicing for life in society by working together in a sort of hostel.
  • Cultural development which has been ongoing is solidified in this plane.
  • Financial Independence – “I can get it myself”.

Fourth Plane of Development: Adulthood (18-24 years): as young adults, they are preparing to take command of their own lives.

  • Characterized by construction of the spiritual.
  • Conscious discernment of right and wrong.
  • Seeking to know one‟s own place within the world.
  • Emotional Independence “I can stand on my own”.


Montessori juga perasan yang dalam peringkat-peringkat ni ada sensitive periods yang mana maklumat atau apa yang diajar tu diterima dan dipelajari dengan mudahnya (almost effortlessly absorbed) dan akan jadi susah untuk dipelajari kemudiannya (bila dah melepasi sensitive periods ni).

Seterusnya dalam Perlu Tahu untuk bantu perkembangan anak-anak ikut kaedah Montessori adalah Sensitive Periods. 

PS: Aqeel sekarang berada di 1st half of first plane, Hana di 2nd half of first plane, Haris the 1st half of 2nd plane.


Illinois Edu
Discovery Education
National Geographic
Discovery Kids
What is Paleontology?
Mystery Science
Kids Dinosaurs

Homemade Dinosaur Bones
DIY Dinosaur Fossil
Dinosaurs Paper Plates
5 LEGO Dinosaurs to Build
Fizzing Hatching Dinosaur Eggs, Handprint Craft, Salt Dough Bones, How Big were the Dinosaur at Frugal Fun for Boys
Online Games Dinosaur Train
Coloring Pages
Activities at Alphabet Soup
Dinosaur Bones with Craft Stick at Our Crafts n Things
Dinosaur Toothpaste
Dinosaur Cretacous

Counting Coconuts
Dinosaur Unit for Elementary Kids
Dinosaur Unit Study
Art for Kids Hub

Montessori Muddle
Fossil Facts & Finds
Wikisori Cultural
Miss Barbara Great Lessons
Montessori Mom

Book: Applying Sun Tzu’s Art of War in Managing Your Children

Applying Sun Tzu’s Art of War in Managing your Children

Dalam banyak-banyak points yang ditulis dalam buku ni, ada beberapa point yang menarik dan boleh di apply diri sendiri:

  • Don’t give them the wrong signals

    Discipline is best enforced through educating your children by telling them “what’s right and what’s wrong.” To scold or punish should be considered only as a last resort.

    Bila apa yang dia buat tu tak OK, beritahu yang dia buat tu tak OK bukan biarkan je. Bila biarkan je anak akan rasa boleh buat camtu. Rasanya nampak banyak berlaku di luar sana terutamanya bila apa yang anak dia buat tu menyusahkan orang lain. Bukan marah, tapi nasihat. Apa yang tak OK dan kesan dari apa yang dia buat.

  • Keep temper out of your discplinary attempt
      • Scold or punish WITHOUT temper as a last resort.

    Sorang budak tak sengaja jatuhkan mangkuk porcelain yang mahal, pecah seribu, dan ibunya yang terkejut dan kecewa menahan dirinya dari menjerit marah. Sebaliknya dia dengan tenangnya beritahu anaknya yang dalam ketakutan tu, dia sekarang perlu tahu dan belajar dari kesalahan. Dia ajar anaknya guna kertas pasir dan tumpulkan bahagian tajam dan gamkan semula. Bila dah siap mak dia beritahu walaupun dah tak boleh guna tapi letak dalam bilik kamu sebagai ingatan atas kecuaian kamu yang menyebabkan mangkuk yang cantik dan mahal ni pecah.”

  • Assign some suitable responsibilities to your child
    • Setiap anak ada tugas masing-masing dalam rumah. Kat dalam rumah beri kerja ikut umur dan minat. Contoh ada anak suka memasak beri tugas bantu ibu masak, anak yang suka baiki2, tugas dia baiki dan buat kerja maintenance rumah dan yang muda-muda buat kerja-kerja mudah, set up meja makan, buat air etc.
  • Avoid head-on clashes (yang ni dalam buku dia tujukan kepada remaja tapi rasanya boleh apply untuk umur Haris)
    • Bila apa yang dia buat tu membuatkan kita marah, atau kedua-dua kita dan anak kita tengah emotionally high (yang mana dia akan sangat defensive), kita yang break off dulu. “I’ll talk to you later, I have a meeting now.” Tak ada guna juga untuk yakinkan dia sebab masa tu dia takkan dengar juga cakap kita.
  • Do the unexcpected & win over your teenager without suppresion
    • Bila dia buat sesuatu yang dia expect kita akan marah, kita humor instead. This will leave them startled and eventually slowly they improve or reflect on it. Contoh yang dia bagi anak balik lewat malam, dia tunggu, anak dia expect dia marah tapi instead dia ajak minum coffee dan dia dapat rasa anak dia dah tense up dan bersedia untuk menjawab (you know macam kita dulu-dulu juga. uhuk.) Ayah dia buat cam takde pape berlaku dan masuk bilik masing-masing. Anak dia kat rumah selama 2 hari lepas tu, dan hari ketiga bila dah guard down barulah ayah dia slowly beritahu dia punya concern. Yang dia risau safety anak dia keluar malam-malam sampai dia tak boleh tidur. Anak dia minta maaf dan walaupun dah balik kolej, anak dia tak lagi balik tengah-tengah malam.

Ending Sounds

Bermula minggu lepas sekali lagi cuba praktis lagi untuk Hana aware dengan ending sounds. Quoting post di Instagram 21/7/2017.

Hana di stage 4 i spy. Aware dengan ending sounds. Byk kali dh cuba sebelum ni tapi asyik guna ending sound jadi beginning sound. Jumpa tips guna beginning sounds sama dan ending lain. Set sebelum book, ball dan basket. Bila minta “I spy with my little eye something that begins with b and end with k” dia akan sebut “k k k kbook” jadinya. Huhuhu. Lepas tu baru slow2 dia nampak kot. She has tendency untuk sebut, mungkin sebab tu jadi susah. Jadi minta dia tunjuk je. Lepas tu baru ok. Set 2 ni masih guna beginning yang sama ending beza. Dan makin smooth.

Untuk latihan pengukuhan, kami guna ending sound cards dari Montessori Print Shop. 

Yang ini lebih kepada Pink Series ending sounds yang semuanya three letters objects tapi sebenarnya perkataan panjang pun boleh. Yang mana beberapa hari lepas tu masa tengah rehat-rehat tu kami main-main animals figurines, lepas tu secara spontan buat I-Spy. Elephant, Giraffe, Starfish, Sheep etc.

Latihan lain kami buat:

Worksheets dari This Reading Mama.

Ending Sound Sorting di Montessori for Everyone