• Montessori Notes,  Practical Life

    Practical Life

    Saya suka explanation Practical Life di sini:

    Practical: means basic, useful, purposeful
    Life: means the way of living.

    Practical life Exercises are just that, they are Exercises so the child can learn how to do living activities in a purposeful way.

    Dari Maitrilearning:

    “Remember that the child’s nature is non-utilitarian at this age. This means they do things just for the sake of doing them; they do not necessarily work towards a larger goal. For example, many young children love the challenge of carrying a bowlful of water across the room without spilling a drop. They don’t need to deliver the bowl to anyone. They are just happy to carry it back and forth across the room! It is this unique nature of the young child that we must take advantage of by offering preliminary exercises that prepare them for the larger tasks ahead.”

    Latihan practical life ni pelbagai ikut budaya masing-masing. Jadi, perlu cipta kurikulum praktikal yang akan membantu kanak-kanak bila mereka menghadapi situasi-situasi dalam budaya kontemporari mereka. Contoh, walaupun aktiviti-aktiviti tu universal contohnya basuh meja (salah satu aktiviti Practical Life Montessori) dan skill ni (staying hygiene) perlu walaupun di negara mana pun kita berada, secara amnya ianya bermula dari kiri ke kanan (dan kebanyakan aktiviti Montessori begitu) tujuannya untuk biasakan kanak-kanak dengan penulisan yang kebanyakannya bermula dari kiri ke kanan. Tetapi untuk saya sendiri, saya akan mulakan dengan kanan, kerana ianya sunnah, mulakan apa-apa dari arah kanan. Jadi untuk practical life ni, boleh disesuaikan dengan cara agama dan budaya kita.

    5 kategori dalam Practical Life:

    1. Latihan Awalan (Preliminary Exercises)
      • Task-task kecil yang kemudian bergabung jadi task besar contoh; sebelum kanak-kanak diharapkan pakai smock sebelum melukis, kanak-kanak perlu dulu belajar memakai, membuka dan menyimpan smock. Aktiviti ni dibuat berasingan dan tiada kaitan dengan melukis. Contoh lain: cara guna sinki, cara basahkan dan wring sponge, cara bawa buku, cara buka buku, cara guna clothespin, etc.
    2. Penjagaan Diri (Care of the Self)
      • Aktiviti-aktiviti untuk memenuhi keperluan penjagaan diri sendiri sepanjang hari. Kritikal untuk bina keyakinan diri contoh: butang, zip, tying, lacing, basuh tangan, basuh muka, sediakan makanan, cara guna pisau, spread jam, potong buah-buah, menjahit.
    3. Penjagaan Persekitaran (Care of the Environment)
      • Aktiviti-aktiviti menghubungkan kanak-kanak dengan alam persekitarannya dan membina tanggungjawab terhadap persekitarannya. Aktiviti-aktiviti ni membentuk rasa seronok, bangga dan gembira dalam bukan sahaja terhadap kebersihan, juga terhadap kecantikan dan semua elemen yang ada dalam ruang manusia (contoh tumbuhan, haiwan pelihara)
      • Contoh: dusting, sweeping, folding, washing table, washing cloths, ironing, setting a table, polishing, caring for pets,  caring for plants, flower arranging.
    4. Control of Movement
      • Dengan pergerakanlah kanak-kanak boleh mengatur dan membina intelligence. Pergerakan tak boleh asingkan dengan higher cognitive skills, sebab intrinsically related (seperti minda dan badan).
      • Contoh: Walking on line heel to toe, marching on a line, carrying a bowl of water across the room, wearing a blindfold and finding someone who is ringing a bell.
    5. Grace & Courtesy
      • Menyesuaikan diri dengan budaya. Aktiviti-aktiviti membantu kanak-kanak supaya berkelakuan baik dalam apa jua situasi. Di ajar dengan let’s pretend / role plays, contoh bagaimana cara untuk minta tolong, mendapatkan / memanggil perhatian dengan sopan, bagaimana nak nyatakan excuse me, please, thank you and you’re welcome, minta giliran, menunggu giliran, bagaimana ajak main, menolak dengan sopan, apa perlu buat jika barang dirampas dll.

    “When the trained guide creates a practical life exercise, the activity must:

    • Aid the child to mastery of self—developing his movements to an intelligent end
    • Be relevant for what happens in the child’s world today—current/contemporary
    • Have a purposeful, intelligent reason (not just busy work)
    • Be presented at the child’s level using real items that he will find in his own environment for their actual use (e.g., using a melon baller only to ball melons; using a strawberry huller only to hull strawberries)
    • Require purposeful movement
    • Lead to the refinement of gross and fine motor skills
    • Be ordered and sequenced
    • Allow for independence (the order will free them)
    • Allow for both physical and mental functioning
    • Correspond to the abilities of the group (ranging from easy to difficult to meet the needs of all children)
    • Allow for repetition
    • Encourage silence (which encourages concentration)
    • Have points of interest (to maintain the child’s interest and allow them to stay with the work so they can develop their attention span); there are generally 2, 3 or 4 points of interest for each work”
  • Montessori Notes

    Muscular Education

    Gymnastic yang disebutkan dalam buku Montessori Method adalah bukan gymnastic seperti yang kita biasa bayangkan dan yang biasa kita dengar (Montessori rasa latihan begini repress pergerakan spontan) tapi yang disebut dalam buku ni adalah, siri latihan yang membantu perkembangan perkembangan fisiologi normal seperti berjalan, bernafas, percakapan). Latihan-latihan ini justeru membantu kanak-kanak untuk melakukan the most ordinary acts of life seperti dressing, undressing, buttoning their clothes, lacing their shoes, bawa objek seperti bola, cubes dan lain-lain. Jadi umur 3-6 tahun sangat sesuai untuk latihan gymnastic. 

    Yang disebut dalam buku adalah

    1. Walking and lots of it
    2. Montessori perhatikan (observed) semasa kanak-kanak marching di laman, mereka yang berumur 3-6 tahun, kadang-kadang akan keluar dari perbarisan, kepenatan. Montessori sediakan kerusi-kerusi tetapi mereka tak guna, tetapi mereka akan panjat pagar yang ada berdekatan lebih kurang macam di bawah:

    They moved themselves along the wires

  • Montessori Notes

    Keperluan & Kecenderungan Manusia / Human Needs & Tendencies

    Berbeza dengan Teori Hierarki Keperluan Maslow, Montessori, bahagikan keperluan asas manusia kepada dua:

    Fizikal

    • sufficient food
    • appropriate clothing
    • shelter
    • defense
    • transportation.

    Rohani

    • love
    • arts/music
    • vanitas (to improve and embellish one’s environment)
    • religion

    Untuk memahami kecenderungan manusia baca sini:

    Kecenderungan ini membantu manusia mencapai keperluan asas mereka.

    • Setiap manusia ada keperluan, kecenderungan support keperluan manusia.
    • Semua manusia tidak kira masa atau tempat mempunyai keperluan yang sama.
    • Kecenderungan-kecenderungan ni berikan pelbagai penyelesaian kepada masalah yang sama – makanan, tempat berteduh, keselamatan.
    • One does not have to copy what others have done; Setiap orang boleh selesaikan masalah dengan cara sendiri berdasarkan situasi sendiri dan jalan penyelesaian yang ada jadi tak sama.

     

    Montessori kenalpasti semua manusia cenderung kepada (Human Tendencies dibincangkan oleh Mario Montessori secara terperinci; The Human Tendencies & Montessori Education)

    • Untuk berkomunikasi
    • Bersosial
    • Meniru (imitate)
    • Meneroka, Meneliti (Explore, we are curious)
    • Bergerak (Movement)
    • Ketepatan (Be exact/precise)
    • Menumpukan Perhatian (Concentrate)
    • Ulang (Repeat)
    • Maintain/discover order
    • Berdikari (Achieve independence)
    • Realize perfection/Control errors/Improve ourselves
    • Kawal diri (Control ourselves (physically, intellectually, emotionally))
    • Bekerja (Work)

    Maitrilearning: “And I would add to this list the human tendency to act compassionately, to show care and concern for other living beings”

     

     

  • Language,  Montessori,  Montessori Notes

    Bahasa

    Dari pembacaan dalam teori Montessori. Kanak-kanak melalui tiga peringkat dalam berbahasa.
    1. Percakapan/Oral (expressing themselves)
    Self-confidence
    Enriching Experiences
    Enriching Vocabulary (perbualan, 3 period lessons, cultural stories, songs, poems, and books).
    The Classified Cards
    2. Written (self expression through written form)
    3. Reading (understand someone else’s thoughts)

    Penulisan hanya disembahkan (offered) kedua selepas spoken language practice.

    “In addition, the child is given the freedom to pace himself, granting him the ability to spend as much time as he needs to perfect movements and skills. Each child is treated with respect, as the directress is always an active listener. She kneels down to the child’s level when speaking with the child, looks into his or her eyes when being spoken to, uses the child’s name, and customizes her vocabulary and topics to each child. The directress has a true interest in what each child has to say.”

    At times, the adult must initiate conversations.
    Her role is to converse and demonstrate, not correct. She models expression and listening skills, and helps
    the child to structure and order his thoughts by asking leading questions, indirectly rephrasing, and offering
    comments.

  • Language,  Montessori Notes

    Reality vs Fantasy to Young Children

    Mula-mula tengah study Language Development untuk Hana kaedah Montessori. Ada salah satu kaedah Conversation Pictures dan Picture Story untuk encourage perbualan dan ‘talk’ boleh ditulis dalam bentuk perkataan respectively. Bila kaji lagi mengenai Conversation Pictures ni terjumpa ayat ni:

    • The stories should be about reality, whether true or fictional. Fantasy stories are for the older children who have already established reality. (Source)

    Fantasy & Reality in Children Stories 
    Reality vs Fantasy