First Plane of Development

First plane of Development bermula dari lahir hingga lebih kurang umur 6 tahun. Di peringkat ni kanak-kanak adalah sensory explorers, explore dunia mereka dengan penglihatan, bunyi, bau, rasa dan sentuhan. Mereka belajar untuk berdikari di persekitaran mereka dan komuniti. Mereka juga membina intellect mereka sendiri dengan menyerap (absorb) semua aspek persekitaran, bahasa dan budaya di sekeliling mereka.

Pada setiap plane of development, ada satu-satu masa di mana kanak-kanak menunjukkan minat yang mendalam pada sesuatu aktiviti atau aspek dalam persekitaran. Masa ni Montessori namakan sensitive periods for learning. Contoh, sensitive period untuk bahasa aktif semasa first plane of development iaitu dari lahir hingga 6 tahun. Sensitive period ni membolehkan kanak-kanak belajar bahasa dengan mudah dan seronok. Jika, atas apapun sebab, kanak-kanak tidak belajar bercakap masa ni, sensitive period ni hilang dan pembelajaran bahasa kemudian akan memerlukan usaha yang lebih. Montessori acknowledge ini dan sediakan persekitaran, bahan-bahan dan aktiviti-aktiviti yang membantu kanak-kanak di sensitive period.

Ciri-ciri kanak-kanak di First Plane of Development (read more)

  • They become functionally independent; they learn to control their movement, to communicate and to work with their hands.
  • Development is shaped by the special capacity children of this age have for learning and absorbing vast amounts of information, called absorbent mind.
  • Without being conscious they are learning, children ‘absorb’ impressions from the environment, impressions that construct their mind and intellect and enable them to adapt to their time and place in history.
  • They experience periods during which they display heightened sensitivity to, or interest in, particular aspects of the environment, sensitive periods (windows of opportunity during which children’s intense interest, and the spontaneous activity this interest generates, enable children to learn the corresponding knowledge and skill with ease and enjoyment)
  • Montessori educators observe children closely for signs of sensitive periods. They use these observations as a guide to help them choose the optimum time for offering children lessons and activities in, for example, social skills, the refinement of movement and sensory perception, language and mathematics.
  • Time for enormous physical development (By the age of six, they can talk and communicate their needs; they can walk, climb, run and jump by themselves, feed and dress themselves and manage their own toileting.)
  • Social and emotional development
  • Mental development
  • Babies are born with a strong urge to communicate and to express themselves. By age six children have
    acquired language, not only spoken language, but also the fundamental skills of writing and reading.
  • At the same time children are using a mathematical mind as evidenced by their need for order and sequence and the drive for precision and accuracy. During the first six years of life children construct a foundation for later studies in arithmetic and geometry.

Senarai di bawah ambil dari sini:

Social Development 


  • Individuation, the “birth” of the ego or self
  • Trust in people and the environment
  • Independence, achieved by being able to walk, talk, eat table food, use the toilet, etc.
  • Social adaptation

Acquisition of spoken language, including dialect and gesture, ethnic idiosyncrasies, cultural values, social
attitudes and behaviors, etc. are all absorbed by the infant effortlessly from experiences within society ’s first
representative, the family. Montessori called this incarnation (Absorbent Mind 25) and suggested that it serves an adaptive purpose.


  • Self-discipline
  • Increased independence derived from new skills and competencies
  • Knowledge of appropriate and specific social behaviors
  • Patience and the ability to share
  • Respect for others
  • A willingness to abide by rules to create social order

Moral Development

  • Nourishment of the human spirit by a warm and protective family atmosphere
  • Internalization of ethical behavior patterns, empathic attitudes, religious and positive cultural values, etc.
  • Perseverance, good work habits
  • Ability to choose
  • Self-discipline
  • Independence
  • Mental balance
  • Sublimation of the possessive instinct
  • Care and respect for the environment and for others
  • Willingness to abide by rules to create social order

At the end of the period, we find the awakening of conscience, the inner voice combined with a kind of moral
intelligence that has been internalized from the order of the external environment. Somewhere between six and
seven, children become conscious of this inner voice. Meanwhile, they have acquired the ability to obey and, by
the time they are six, their obedience usually can be depended on. They begin to be responsible and feel a sense of duty. They can now listen and pay attention (Mario M. Montessori, The Child Before 7). In most countries, formal education begins at this age.
Yet, says Mario M. Montessori, “Whether we realize it or not, the subconscious of the child is a much more
powerful agent for good, beauty, and religion than any conscious teaching later on. You cannot impart spirituality to seven-year-olds by teaching moral precepts” (“Dr. Maria Montessori” 58)

Cognitive Development


  • The creation of mind
  • The acquisition of spoken language
  • Development of memory, the power to understand, the ability to think and move intentionally.
  • Formation of consciousness, self-awareness, ego

The unconscious absorbent mind, paired with the sensitive periods, creates the very mind of the human being in the first phase. The potentialities created — intellect, memory, reason, will, etc. — are expanded and refined in the second period.


  • The clarification and classification of impressions absorbed in the first period (“bringing order into the chaos”)
  • Increase in knowledge/vocabulary
  • Refinement of sense perception/discrimination
  • Logical/linear thinking
  • New skills and competencies
  • Sustained interest
  • Augmentation of intellect

Emotional Development


  • The establishment of close emotional ties with the adult caregiver
  • A sense of security and safety within the family
  • The first level of personality integration
  • Feelings of gratitude, trust, and respect for significant adults
  • Feelings of adequacy, autonomy, independence, and confidence

When the right conditions meet the child ’s need for love and security, then with the second phase (3-6),
manifestations are further articulated and advanced as the child enters a Montessori Casa dei Bambini. In this
environment, children can concentrate their energies on constructive activities. When children work in this way,
they demonstrate:

  • pleasure in purposeful activity
  • serenity, calmness, satisfaction, emotional equilibrium
  • happiness, joy
  • an anxious concern for life
  • love for people and things
  • emotional wellness
  • warm, expressive, outgoing, and optimistic personalities

Such children have already begun to make a positive adaptation to their world and have discovered how to find
happiness, spiritually and physically, in the conditions of that world. A kind of emotional intelligence has been
created, which will hopefully serve t hem throughout the coming stages of life.

Four Planes of Development

(PS: ‘Plane’ di sini bermaksud bentuk rajah yang mewakili perkembangan ni. Geometri Satah. Satah? Patut kita sebut 4 Perkembangan Satah ke?)

Melalui pemerhatian teliti dan kajian, Maria Montessori kenalpasti yang manusia melalui perubahan dan perkembangan dalam 4 peringkat. Bermula lahir hingga matang, umur 24 tahun. Ia dianggap holistik kerana merangkumi perkembangan manusia dalam akademik, spiritual, moral dan emosi. Setiap peringkat tu manusia melalui perkembangan ikut pattern yang sama; yang mana ianya berlaku secara ‘spurts’ not a slow and gradual increase.

I have found that in his development, the child passes through certain phases, each of which has its own particular needs. The characteristics of each are so different that the passages from one phase to another have been described by certain psychologists as ‘rebirths’. (Montessori, “The Four Planes of Education”, p.1, reprinted in 2004)”

Untuk lebih jelas, beliau gambarkan perkembangan seperti di bawah:

Image from: Stepping Stone Montessori School

develops first through a series of progressions followed by a series of regressions. Each stage also has a pinnacle that indicates the time when the characteristics of each period are clearly exhibited in the child. Montessori compared this progress to a “series of rebirths” (Absorbent Mind, 17).”

Dengan mengetahui perkembangan anak-anak di setiap peringkat, dapat kita ibu-ibu dan ayah-ayah bantu sediakan persekitaran yang sesuai dengan perkembangannya.

Setiap peringkat ini, ada faktor dan fokus tertentu. Pada 3 tahun pertama setiap peringkat, fokusnya adalah pengenalan, pemerhatian, indirect learning dan information gathering. 3 tahun yang seterusnya adalah untuk mengasah atau sempurnakan skills yang sebelumnya.

Ambil contoh first plane, pada permulaan setiap peringkat, perkembangan tu boleh nampak dengan ketara dan intense (0-3 tahun) sehingga kemuncak (3 tahun) dan  perkembangan tu perlahan dan kanak-kanak lebih stabil untuk bersedia ke peringkat seterusnya. Masa lahir kanak-kanak hanya mempunyai sedikit koordinasi dan penggunaan otot, tapi pada umur  3 tahun dah boleh berjalan, berlari dan lompat sedikit. Pada 6 tahun, boleh berlumba, lompat, sepak dan tangkap bola. Ya  6-7 tahun ke atas mereka masih belajar lagi untuk better control tapi ianya bukan lagi fokus utama peringkat itu. Setiap peringkat tu seperti permulaan yang baru bagi manusia, yang menunjukkan ciri-ciri, keperluan, tingkah laku yang baru.

Jika lihat carta, peringkat pertama dan ketiga tu warna hitam, kerana kedua-dua peringkat tu ada persamaan yang mana menunjukkan perubahan yang ketara dan banyak keperluan. Peringkat kedua dan keempat juga sama, mereka menunjukkan perkembangan yang lebih sihat, stabil dan kuat.

Dan pendapat sendiri untuk Haris, masa dia 6-7 tahun, boleh nampak perkembangan ketara dari personaliti, way of thinking, juga fizikal.

Secara ringkasnya, rujukan sini:

Peringkat Pertama: Bayi (0-6 tahun): Children are sensorial explorers absorbing every aspect of their environment.

  • Bercirikan “Minda Menyerap” di mana minda bayi menyerap seperti span semua yang ada dipersekitarannya.
  • Pada umur 0-3 ia berlaku secara tidak sedar
  • Pada umur 3-6 ia berlaku secara sedar
  • Bercirikan “Tempoh Sensitif” termasuklah keperluan memuncak kepada Aturan, Bahasa, Memperhalusi Deria dan Pergerakan
  • Bercirikan pemikiran konkrit
  • Pembentukan fizikal
  • Pembentukan asas peribadi
  • “Saya boleh buat sendiri!” Berdikari secara fizikal

Peringkat Kedua: Kanak-Kanak (6-12 tahun): Children are exploring their world through abstraction and imagination. They use their knowledge to discover and expand their world.

  • Bercirikan pemikiran imaginasi dan logik
  • Dahagakan ilmu dan pengetahuan
  • “Cosmic Education” – kanak-kanak ingin tahu tentang semua dan kedudukannya dalamnya dan hubungan antara semua perkara dengan manusia
  • Peralihan pemikiran konkrit ke abstrak
  • Berminat belajar tentang alam semesta dan dunia – dunia di luar dari the prepared environment
  • “Saya boleh berfikir sendiri!” Berdikari intelektual

Peringkat Ketiga: Remaja (12-18 tahun): They are interested in understanding themselves and their place in the society. They look for an opportunity to contribute to the society.

  • Bercirikan penilaian dan ambil berat tentang diri sendiri
  • Pemikiran kritis
  • Tempoh peralihan fizikal dan mental
  • Mula mencari tempat di dunia ni
  • Bercirikan pembentukan nilai-nilai sosial dan moral
  • “Erd Kinder”
  • Cultural development which has been ongoing is solidified in this plane.
  • “Saya boleh dapat pendapatan sendiri!” Berdikari kewangan.

Peringkat Keempat: Dewasa (18-24 years): as young adults, they are preparing to take command of their own lives.

  • Characterized by construction of the spiritual.
  • Conscious discernment of right and wrong.
  • Seeking to know one’s own place within the world.
  • Emotional Independence “I can stand on my own”.

Penerangan ilustrasi four planes

Sensitive Periods

Montessori juga perasan yang dalam peringkat-peringkat ni ada sensitive periods yang mana maklumat atau apa yang diajar tu diterima dan dipelajari dengan mudahnya (almost effortlessly absorbed) dan akan jadi susah untuk dipelajari kemudiannya (bila dah melepasi sensitive periods ni).

Seterusnya dalam Perlu Tahu untuk bantu perkembangan anak-anak ikut kaedah Montessori adalah Sensitive Periods

PS: Aqeel sekarang berada di 1st half of first plane, Hana di 2nd half of first plane, Haris the 1st half of 2nd plane.

Ajar cara handle buku

Montessori Read & Write oleh Lynn Lawrence sarankan mula ajar anak umur 2 tahun cara-cara handle buku dengan baik.
Sebelum ni pernah baca dalam beberapa Montessori Album (lebih kurang pada manual) lesson ni, pernah introduce dan dibuat tak layan. Dibuatnya cara mereka juga. Lama-lama maknya sedar, Montessori di rumah tak boleh sama dengan Montessori Classroom. Mungkin masa awal dulu cuba formalkan lesson tu, termasuk dalam lesson plan nak buat ni nak buat tu. Benda yang macam ni contohnya, cara nak handle buku ni sebenarnya boleh buat dengan spontan dengan anak-anak dan jangan expect sekali tunjuk mereka boleh faham dan praktik. Kita sendiri kena praktik dan konsisten tunjuk. Mereka belajar dan dengan lihat apa yang kita buat.

  • Belek Buku

“Show her how to lift the top or bottom corner of the right-hand page between her thumb and index finger, then slide the whole hand under the page as you turn it from the right to left. Practice this together.” 
Video di bawah tunjuk bagaimana lesson is carried out in a Montessori classroom.

Sebelum ni cuba dengan Hana tapi Hana impatient. Masa ni jahil tak praktik sendiri, hanya fikir lesson je. Bila baca balik buku ni dan secara senyap tunjukkan dan betulkan Hana secara spontan, Hana dengan cepatnya betulkan. Kadang dia terlupa, dan cepat-cepat betulkan cara belek supaya tak koyak.

Montessori Album: Removing and Replacing a book on a shelfOpening a BookTurning Pages of a Book 

  • Bawa Buku

Tunjuk bawa buku dengan pegang kedua-dua tepi buku guna kedua-dua tangan. Sama macam kita pegang tray.

  • Letak semula di rak

“When your child begins to go off by herself and choose a book, get comfortable and starts to look through it in a world of her own, you know that you have succeeded in creating a reader – a child who chooses to read. When you see that the book is the right way up, that the content is being studied and that the pages are being turned in the right direction, you know that you have achieved the single most important step in helping her to read and write.” – Montessori Read & Write

Ruang baca dirumah

Dalam buku Montessori Read & Write oleh Lynn Lawrence, salah satu persediaan awal untuk anak membaca dan menulis adalah sediakan satu ruang khas dalam rumah. Guna rak buku yang sama ketinggian dengan anak-anak untuk mereka senang capai dan ambil sendiri bila-bila mereka nak dan tempat kita bacakan buku (read aloud).

Buku mesti tunjuk muka depan untuk tarik minat anak-anak untuk buka, belek dan baca. Kalau takde rak, Lynn cadang sandarkan je 3 – 4 buah buku di dinding. Buatkan ruang tu selesa, mungkin tambah karpet kecil, bantal, bean bag dsb. Rotate buku display (saya rotate setiap bulan) tapi pastikan ada buku yang paling anak-anak suka. Dengan rotate ni kita dapat tahu taste buku anak kita.

Dalam gambar tu, kali ketiga kami tukar kedudukan ruang baca (sebab tukar semua interior). Tapi saya suka yang sebelum ni, buku-buku sandar pada dinding bukan sandar pada rak buku camni.

(Gambar ruang baca lama. Kami guna picture ledge dari IKEA untuk display buku dan letak je kat lantai.)

Yang sekarang nampak macam serabut. Surprisingly, kali ni mereka banyak ke sini lepak-lepak, belek-belek buku dan baca-baca. Kadang ambil yang display, kadang ambil yang ada di rak (lebih pada nak sepahkan 😅) .

Mungkin pilihan buku di display? Dekat dengan meja main? Dekat dengan sliding door (cahaya semulajadi)? Masih tak dapat kenalpasti apa yang tarik mereka ke sini beberapa kali dalam satu hari but it works! Even my husband commented “Bagusnya baca-baca buku.” 😁

Baca 3 Steps to Create Montessori Inspired Reading Area di The Kavanaugh Report.

Ada banyak gambar-gambar di internet kalau google ‘Kids/Toddler Reading Corner/Nook/Space’ untuk inspirasi. Dan antara yang saya suka:


Dari atas kiri:

  1. Reading area di Midwest Montessori
  2. Reading Space di Carrots are Orange
  3. Reading Nook di Vibrant Wanderings
  4. Reading Corner di SouleMama
  5. Reading Corner di MyRaeCreations
  6. Dari ThreeOaksBlog untuk anaknya 8 bulan. (LOVE!)



Practical Life

Saya suka explanation Practical Life di sini:

Practical: means basic, useful, purposeful
Life: means the way of living.

Practical life Exercises are just that, they are Exercises so the child can learn how to do living activities in a purposeful way.

Dari Maitrilearning:

“Remember that the child’s nature is non-utilitarian at this age. This means they do things just for the sake of doing them; they do not necessarily work towards a larger goal. For example, many young children love the challenge of carrying a bowlful of water across the room without spilling a drop. They don’t need to deliver the bowl to anyone. They are just happy to carry it back and forth across the room! It is this unique nature of the young child that we must take advantage of by offering preliminary exercises that prepare them for the larger tasks ahead.”

Latihan practical life ni pelbagai ikut budaya masing-masing. Jadi, perlu cipta kurikulum praktikal yang akan membantu kanak-kanak bila mereka menghadapi situasi-situasi dalam budaya kontemporari mereka. Contoh, walaupun aktiviti-aktiviti tu universal contohnya basuh meja (salah satu aktiviti Practical Life Montessori) dan skill ni (staying hygiene) perlu walaupun di negara mana pun kita berada, secara amnya ianya bermula dari kiri ke kanan (dan kebanyakan aktiviti Montessori begitu) tujuannya untuk biasakan kanak-kanak dengan penulisan yang kebanyakannya bermula dari kiri ke kanan. Tetapi untuk saya sendiri, saya akan mulakan dengan kanan, kerana ianya sunnah, mulakan apa-apa dari arah kanan. Jadi untuk practical life ni, boleh disesuaikan dengan cara agama dan budaya kita.

5 kategori dalam Practical Life:

  1. Latihan Awalan (Preliminary Exercises)
    • Task-task kecil yang kemudian bergabung jadi task besar contoh; sebelum kanak-kanak diharapkan pakai smock sebelum melukis, kanak-kanak perlu dulu belajar memakai, membuka dan menyimpan smock. Aktiviti ni dibuat berasingan dan tiada kaitan dengan melukis. Contoh lain: cara guna sinki, cara basahkan dan wring sponge, cara bawa buku, cara buka buku, cara guna clothespin, etc.
  2. Penjagaan Diri (Care of the Self)
    • Aktiviti-aktiviti untuk memenuhi keperluan penjagaan diri sendiri sepanjang hari. Kritikal untuk bina keyakinan diri contoh: butang, zip, tying, lacing, basuh tangan, basuh muka, sediakan makanan, cara guna pisau, spread jam, potong buah-buah, menjahit.
  3. Penjagaan Persekitaran (Care of the Environment)
    • Aktiviti-aktiviti menghubungkan kanak-kanak dengan alam persekitarannya dan membina tanggungjawab terhadap persekitarannya. Aktiviti-aktiviti ni membentuk rasa seronok, bangga dan gembira dalam bukan sahaja terhadap kebersihan, juga terhadap kecantikan dan semua elemen yang ada dalam ruang manusia (contoh tumbuhan, haiwan pelihara)
    • Contoh: dusting, sweeping, folding, washing table, washing cloths, ironing, setting a table, polishing, caring for pets,  caring for plants, flower arranging.
  4. Control of Movement
    • Dengan pergerakanlah kanak-kanak boleh mengatur dan membina intelligence. Pergerakan tak boleh asingkan dengan higher cognitive skills, sebab intrinsically related (seperti minda dan badan).
    • Contoh: Walking on line heel to toe, marching on a line, carrying a bowl of water across the room, wearing a blindfold and finding someone who is ringing a bell.
  5. Grace & Courtesy
    • Menyesuaikan diri dengan budaya. Aktiviti-aktiviti membantu kanak-kanak supaya berkelakuan baik dalam apa jua situasi. Di ajar dengan let’s pretend / role plays, contoh bagaimana cara untuk minta tolong, mendapatkan / memanggil perhatian dengan sopan, bagaimana nak nyatakan excuse me, please, thank you and you’re welcome, minta giliran, menunggu giliran, bagaimana ajak main, menolak dengan sopan, apa perlu buat jika barang dirampas dll.

“When the trained guide creates a practical life exercise, the activity must:

  • Aid the child to mastery of self—developing his movements to an intelligent end
  • Be relevant for what happens in the child’s world today—current/contemporary
  • Have a purposeful, intelligent reason (not just busy work)
  • Be presented at the child’s level using real items that he will find in his own environment for their actual use (e.g., using a melon baller only to ball melons; using a strawberry huller only to hull strawberries)
  • Require purposeful movement
  • Lead to the refinement of gross and fine motor skills
  • Be ordered and sequenced
  • Allow for independence (the order will free them)
  • Allow for both physical and mental functioning
  • Correspond to the abilities of the group (ranging from easy to difficult to meet the needs of all children)
  • Allow for repetition
  • Encourage silence (which encourages concentration)
  • Have points of interest (to maintain the child’s interest and allow them to stay with the work so they can develop their attention span); there are generally 2, 3 or 4 points of interest for each work”

Keperluan & Kecenderungan Manusia / Human Needs & Tendencies

Berbeza dengan Teori Hierarki Keperluan Maslow, Montessori, bahagikan keperluan asas manusia kepada dua:


  • sufficient food
  • appropriate clothing
  • shelter
  • defense
  • transportation.


  • love
  • arts/music
  • vanitas (to improve and embellish one’s environment)
  • religion

Untuk memahami kecenderungan manusia baca sini:

Kecenderungan ini membantu manusia mencapai keperluan asas mereka.

  • Setiap manusia ada keperluan, kecenderungan support keperluan manusia.
  • Semua manusia tidak kira masa atau tempat mempunyai keperluan yang sama.
  • Kecenderungan-kecenderungan ni berikan pelbagai penyelesaian kepada masalah yang sama – makanan, tempat berteduh, keselamatan.
  • One does not have to copy what others have done; Setiap orang boleh selesaikan masalah dengan cara sendiri berdasarkan situasi sendiri dan jalan penyelesaian yang ada jadi tak sama.


Montessori kenalpasti semua manusia cenderung kepada (Human Tendencies dibincangkan oleh Mario Montessori secara terperinci; The Human Tendencies & Montessori Education)

  • Untuk berkomunikasi
  • Bersosial
  • Meniru (imitate)
  • Meneroka, Meneliti (Explore, we are curious)
  • Bergerak (Movement)
  • Ketepatan (Be exact/precise)
  • Menumpukan Perhatian (Concentrate)
  • Ulang (Repeat)
  • Maintain/discover order
  • Berdikari (Achieve independence)
  • Realize perfection/Control errors/Improve ourselves
  • Kawal diri (Control ourselves (physically, intellectually, emotionally))
  • Bekerja (Work)

Maitrilearning: “And I would add to this list the human tendency to act compassionately, to show care and concern for other living beings”