• Montessori Notes


    Pernah tak tengok video sekolah montessori, atau seharian aktiviti kanak-kanak dalam kelas montessori (authentic ones)? Mula sampai, shake hands directress, sangkut beg, coat, masuk kelas shake hands dan tegur kawan, pilih aktiviti di shelf, atau ngelap2, circle time, snack time, prepare, makan, basuh tangan, basuh pinggan, ada yang pilih baca buku, ada yang duk luar buat aktiviti diluar tanpa disuruh, mereka buat sendiri je? And I initially thought that’s normalisation, and there’s no way ‘we’ (our family) could ever achieve that. We didn’t do 3 hour work cycle, our house not fully prepared, I myself not prepared 😅 dan segala macam kriteria montessori. Tapi jangan salah faham dengan terms normalisation yang eh Montessori ni, anak kita yang bising, huru hara main je keje, tak fokus, suka sepah ni tak normallah? Normalisation dalam konteks montessori bermaksud “becoming a contributing member of the society”. Aloh, komplikated bunyi but we need that, don’t we? Look at the state of our teenagers and youngsters now? Anyway, someone asked me about normalisation the other day, and got me thinking again, and I did my research again. I reread Absorbent Mind on this chapter, read articles and discussions dan dapatlah pencerahan…. yang normalisation ni bukan bermaksud seperti yang dalam video-video kita tengok tu. Normalisation yang dimaksudkan tu adalah keadaan di mana kanak-kanak tu bila dia terlalu fokus dan terlalu concentrate terhadap sesuatu tu dan bila dia dah siap dan puas hati dengan kerja yang dia buat tu, dia akan rasa puas, content, refresh! That, that moment! Montessori discover moment ni bila dia observe sejumlah pelajar (rasanya yang mula-mula dia incharge, I have to go back and read this story) yang dari bermacam jenis background dan bermacam jenis perangai. You know, kids, some louds, some quiet, some lompat-lompat, some suka jatuhkan barang2. Tapi bila Montessori sesuaikan persekitaran mengikut keperluan kanak-kanak ni, she discovers this amazing view yang mana semua kanak-kanak yang tadi in deep concentration with work they’re doing. Bayangkan keadaan tu yang mana suasana lebih tenang dan Montessori anggap that’s who children really are.

    Sebab tu dia namakan that moment tu yang mana kanak-kanak buat apa-apa yang dipilihnya with deep concentration and when done mereka content dan refresh, normalisation. Therefore, they will be in and out of normalisation. Dan bila continously macam ni they’ll develop self discipline and peace. Jadi legalah sikit yang normalisation ni achievable at home.

  • Montessori Notes

    Human Tendencies 2

    Ianya berkait rapat dengan Human Needs & Tendencies. Bila dapat kenalpasti keperluan dan kecenderungan ni dapat bantu perkembangan anak-anak.

    • Movement
      • Ruang untuk pergerakan yang cukup. Macam sekarang dalam rumah ada ruang yang cukup untuk mereka berlari, berbasikal. Tak banyak barang. Kurang barang kaca.
    • Exploration
      • Exploration is an inclination to investigate, inquire, find out and look around.
      • Yang ni mungkin lack. Mungkin boleh bila buat monthly theme ke buat satu sudut untuk mereka boleh explore. Tetapi kadang-kadang mereka request untuk apa-apa I gladly gave them too.
      • Human beings are naturally curious. Through exploration and investigation they learn from their discoveries.
      • Exploration is how Montessori children are taught to view the world.  To experience the world through the five senses is much more powerful than just to read a book or listen to a lecture. Teachers must be very aware of providing ways for the real world to be explored both inside and outside the classroom.
    • Curiosity
    • Orientation
      • This is the ability to find one’s way and to situate oneself physically, emotionally, intellectually, socially.
      • People want to know their place in the world. They want to know how the people and things in it compare to themselves, to understand where they fit in.
      • To thrive children must orient themselves in their environment. Children must know where they are and how to negotiate that space physical and socially. Consistency and explanation are key ways for children to orient themselves in the six to nine classroom. A child must be orientated before he may fully explore.
    • Order
      • Chaos and confusion are unsettling. Therefore humans try to find patterns and classification systems so that they can make sense of the world.
      • The human mind strives for a logical processing of information.  This clarity is found in order. In the six to nine classroom, this order is no longer expressed by outward precision as often as it was in younger stages of development. At this plane of development, order has moved inward, and the child is developing a sense of internal order. Although the child may begin to seem not to care about rugs, shelves, and an ordered classroom, he has internalized the order and has moved it into a more intellectual process whereby he classifies, logically observes, and reviews information much more in his mind. Order is essential to proper orientation.
    • Observation
    • Communication
      • There is a natural desire to communicate. Regardless of the culture or time period, human beings have shared experiences and exchanged information.
      • Communication makes it possible for us to live in a society. Expression of needs and reactions to others is made possible through communication.  Instruction and explanation are received through communication. Proper communication allows for the mind to more fully explore the world, intellectually and socially.
    • Work
      • Throughout history humans have shown the ability and willingness to work and strive for not only survival, but improvement in life.
      • Having a purpose in an activity encourages children to work. Work brings great joy when it is voluntary and allows for mastery.
    • Activity
      • Active involvement with the surrounding environment allows people to learn and further their self-development.
    • Exactness
      •  Humans perceive when things don’t fit together. When this happens, they adjust, refine, and improve.
      • Exactitude allows children to know how to know when perfection is achieved. Through the tendency of exactness, the logical processing of information has allowed man to reach many scientific planes. Children use the tendency of exactitude at a young age to know through physical exploration whether or not they have reached perfection. As children reach the six to nine classroom, the lessons of deep physical exploration have encouraged the children to have an innate awareness of perfection.
    • Perfection
      • The drive to repeat tasks until mastery reflects the human tendency to reach for perfection. Children who are allowed to repeat until mastery is achieved are joyful people. Internal satisfaction through completing internally set goals is much more satisfying than completing a task assigned to you. This is not a perfectionism that crushes creativity and joy, but the deep satisfaction of a job well done.
    • Repetition
      • All humans learn through practice. This repetition allows them to reach closer to perfection.
      • Mastery of tasks requires repetition. Humanity has a drive to do something over and over until we gain control over the task. Dr. Montessori encouraged children to repeat items as often as desired. The child’s repetition was complete when she decided that she was finished. This produces within the child the ability for powerful concentration.
    • Manipulation
      •  There is a connection between learning and doing. Humans work with their hands to establish the connection between their mind and their hands.
    • Abstraction & Creativity
      • Humans have an ability to draw conclusions, conceptualize, synthesize & imagine from experiences in the real world. They can imagine that which does not exist, and can think beyond the concrete and real.Self-perfection: Healthy human beings have a natural desire to improve. They find satisfaction in their own personal growth and want to perfect themselves.
      • The power to abstract ideas into other situations is beginning to bloom in the six to nine classroom. This ability is developed by concrete experiences that provide a framework to build the ability of abstraction. This ability is often forced in traditional classrooms at a young age. Dr. Montessori observed that provided enough concrete experiences children will naturally abstract very complex ideas with deep and thorough understanding.
    • Self Discipline
      • Self-discipline is the ability to anticipate the future and sacrifice to achieve a goal beyond the moment. This act of the will allows the child to order his world. Choices and consequences aid in the creation of self-control.


    Montessori Print Shop
    Somewhat in the Air
    The Montessori Nanny
    Montessori Nuggets
    Park Road Montessori
    MMI Article
    COL Montessori
    Mead Montessori School
    Montessori Commons

  • Montessori Notes

    Keperluan anak-anak

    Pernah dengar tak Teori Hierarki Keperluan Manusia Maslow?

    Well, recent read at howwemontessori, What is it that my children need? got me thinking about mine as well.

    Jadi buat bacaan tentang ni dan memang ada pakar dan pengkaji early childhood kaitkan teori ni dengan perkembangan awal kanak-kanak.

    Untuk refresh semula, Teori Hierarki Keperluan Maslow cartanya macam ni.

    Quoted here:

    Bila satu keperluan dicapai, keperluan yang seterusnya akan menjadi satu keperluan atau keutamaan seterusnya. Setiap individu akan memastikan tahap keperluan terendah dipenuhi terlebih dahulu sebelum berusaha untuk memenuhi keperluan tahap yang lebih tinggi.

    Jadi, apa yang diperlukan oleh anak-anak baytzuhr?

    Keperluan Fisiologi

    • Makanan bernutrisi
      • Yang ni perlu sangat banyak improve
    • Rehat yang cukup.
      • Haris especially
    • Exercise
      • Perlu mula semula, regularly make it as part of routine
    • Tidur yang cukup
      • Sleep early!!!!

    Keperluan Keselamatan

    • Routine
      • Establish routine. Kurangkan changes.
    • Order
      • Environment dalam rumah most of it rasanya dah tercapai.
    • Security
      • Still need to go through dan bincang apa perlu buat kalau jadi apa-apa. Cari beberapa situasi dan bincangkan. Contoh, jika ada orang pegang, ingat nombor telefon dan rumah, terpisah di luar, emergency di rumah dsb. Cyber safety.
    • Predicatability
      • Beritahu what we and they’ll be expecting if something out of routine or order.
    • Trust
    • Free space to move

    *predictable barulah kana-kanak rasa selamat dan secure


    • My time/My attention/ My energy
    • Family
    • Friends
    • Neighbourhood

    Esteem Needs

    • Real life experiences
    • Purposeful activity
    • Respect
    • Self Esteem, Confidence – they can be successful, they can make choices, they can achieve. (Aktiviti-aktiviti Montessori semuanya purposeful, control of error. She encourage buat aktiviti yang dia boleh buat.


    • Support whatever their interests are





    PHD In Parenting 
    The Chiildhood 
    How Young Children Learn
    The Creative Curriculum for Preschool
    Sunny Brook Montessori
    Montessori Training
    Simply Psychology

  • Montessori,  Montessori Notes

    4 Peringkat Perkembangan (ringkas)

    “The child passes through certain phases, each of which has its own particular needs. The characteristics of each are so different that the passages from one phase to another have been described by certain psychologists as ‘rebirths’. (Montessori, “The Four Planes of Education”, p.1, reprinted in 2004).

    Perkembangan manusia ikut Montessori tidak menaik tapi berombak.

    Boleh nampak perubahan dari segi personaliti, kemahiran kognitif dan tingkah laku pada setiap peringkat.

    Setiap peringkat mula semula dengan set ciri-ciri, keperluan dan tingkah laku yang baru. Bila satu-satu peringkat tu naik sampai ke kemuncak, ia mula menurun untuk beri laluan peralihan ke peringkat seterusnya.

    Baca lebih lanjut di sini.

  • Montessori Notes

    Sensitive Period for Order

    “A very important and mysterious period is the one which makes a child extremely sensitive to order. This sensitiveness appears in a child’s first year and continues on through the second. It may seem to us slightly fantastic that children should have a sensitive period with respect to external order, since it is a common opinion that children are disorderly by their nature.”

    Dalam pemerhatian Dr Montessori, pada zamannya tu, kanak-kanak dibesarkan dalam persekitaran dewasa (dan sekarang pun, tapi kesedaran terhadap early childhood ni makin meningkat). Bila baca tu, sangat boleh relate, sebab masa kecil biasa kita dengar dari mak ayah, penjaga atau orang dewasa di sekeliling kita cakap “Jangan sentuh tu nanti pecah! (hiasan-hiasan kaca dalam rumah). “Jangan panjat tu nanti jatuh!” (nak naik kerusi meja makan.) Even diri sendiri pun when I was teenager pun I had to care for nephew and niece pun cenggitulah. Jadi seperti yang dikatakan oleh Dr Montessori di atas, memang kita fikir kanak-kanak ni “disorderly by nature”. Tapi Dr. Montessori fikir sebaliknya. Yang mana, dalam pemerhatian beliau, kanak-kanak ni mula sensitive period pada order sejak dari lahir lagi! Bila sensitive period for order ni tidak dipenuhi, mereka akan respon dengan tantrums, nangis berterusan dll.

    Contoh pemerhatian beliau yang beliau ceritakan dalam buku “The Secret of Childhood“:

    Seorang bayi yang berumur lebih kurang 6 bulan, berada dalam biliknya. Dia dah biasa melihat aturan sekitar biliknya. Satu hari seorang wanita masuk ke dalam bilik tu dan letakkan parasol atas meja. Bayi tu mula gelisah dan mula menangis bila melihat beberapa ketika pada parasol tu (dan bukan menangis bila melihat pada wanita tu). Wanita tu ingat bayi tu nakkan parasol tu jadi dia pun ambil dan cuba beri pada bayi tu, tapi bayu tu tolak dan menjerit. Wanita tu memujuk-mujuk bayi tu tapi raungan masih kuat. Apa yang perlu dia buat? Tiba-tiba ibu kepada bayi tu dapat rasa apa yang bayi nak, bangun, dan ambil payung tu dan bawa keluar ke bilik lain. Dengan serta merta bayi tu tenang semula. Penyebab bayi bertindak begitu adalah kerana payung yang ada di atas meja tu; objek yang tetiba datang terjah dan kacau memori patternnya terhadap susun atur bilik tu.


  • Montessori Notes

    3 Hour Work Cycle

    Tengah study dan baca mengenai 3 Hour Work Cycle ni. Boleh jadi ke dalam homeschool setting? Sebab dengan UNINTERRUPTED Work Cycle ni akan ke arah normalisation. Ha.

    Sehinggalah jumpa artikel yang boleh jawab pertanyaan ni dengan jelas. Boleh baca mengenai 3 hour work cycle di sini. Sangat bermanfaat dan diterangkan dengan sangat jelas.

    What I learned from this untuk homeschool setting adalah:

    • 3 hour work cycle bukan hanya kerja-kerja shelf, trays atau lessons. Ia juga termasuklah snacking, preparing food, ke tandas, walk about room, play outside, conversing with friends and teachers, etc.
    • Susah nak tentukan 3 hour work cycle di rumah, sebab ianya boleh berlaku bila-bila masa sebenarnya. Anak ke toilet sendiri, bantu ibu basuh pinggan, prepare snack sendiri, prepare table untuk makan. Semua ni termasuk (jika persekitaran tu dah disediakan (prepared environment)).

    Kalau ikut pengalaman sendiri, ia tak semestinya berlaku pada waktu pagi. Kadang-kadang lepas dinner pun anak-anak akan ke shelf dan ambil tray atau kerja apa-apa yang di shelf dan buat. Kerja tu mereka buat berterusan sehingga habis, pulangkan ke shelf dan masuk tidur.


    Kalau ikut artikel di sini pula, 3 hour work cycle ni dah memang semulajadi ada dalam diri kita. Even kita dewasa ni pun, bila mula kerja mesti in this span of 3 hour – 4 hour work cycle, barulah dapat kepuasan dalam diri.

    Ini pun bila difikir balik, ye juga. Hana bila mula kerja (sebab betul-betul belajar kami tidak setiap hari) it will last dari 2 jam hingga 3 jam. Nanti nak observe seperti yang dalam artikel ni.



  • Books,  Montessori Notes

    Basic Montessori

    Lepas beberapa tahun cuba bermontessori, dengan jumpanya buku ni, barulah dapat banyaaak pencerahan.

    Saya beli di Bookurve harga RM68.

    Untuk tulisan Dr. Montessori sendiri, boleh baca The Absorbent Mind dan The Secret of Childhood. Amek masa juga untuk saya yang marhaen ini untuk hadam tulisan Dr. Montessori.

    Untuk spesifik kepada nak memontessorikan rumah, boleh baca How to Raise an Amazing Child by Tim Seldin & Montessori Play & Learn by Lesley Britton.

    Ingat lagi masa mula-mula nak mendalami lagi kaedah Montessori ni, satu website ni rekemen buku The Montessori Method. Makanya belilah buku ni di Kinokuniya. Tapi ugh takleh nak habiskan, bahasa dia… susah nak hadam. Hahaha. Untuk sesetengah orang mungkin boleh, untuk saya tidak. Lepas tu dapat pinjam buku The Secret of Childhood di National Library dan yang ini macam seronok sikit baca. Baca ni dah boleh grasp the whole theory of Montessori Method.



  • Montessori Notes

    Prepared Adult

    Dah lama nak sentuh topik ni. If you’ve been reading and studying about Montessori, you’ll eventually come across perkataan ni,. Yang banyak dan biasa kita dengar adalah Prepared Environment, tapi ada dua lagi elemen yang sama penting..

    3 elemen penting dalam Montessori:
    1) The Prepared Adult
    2) The Prepared Environment
    3) The Prepared Child

    4 ways adult becomes prepared to work with the child:
    1) Spiritually; inner-self (termasuklah emosi)
    2) Intellectually
    3) Technically
    4) Physically


    “We must see ourselves as another sees us.”

    Dalam buku The Secret of Childhood, Dr. Montessori nyatakan untuk bekerja dengan kanak-kanak, tidak cukup dengan pengetahuan teori sahaja. Cara kita perhatikan kanak-kanak adalah sangat penting. Sebelum bekerja dengan kanak-kanak, guru atau orang dewasa perlu terlebih dahulu “studying his own defects, his own evil tendencies, rather than by being excessively pre-occupied with a “child’s tendencies,” with the manner of ‘correcting child’s mistakes,…’.”

    Free from anger and pride and prejudice which will hinder our understanding of a child.

    • Ingat, troublesome children need the most love. Mereka nakkan perhatian dan tak boleh diendahkan dan perhatian yang diberikan perlulah bersesuaian.
    • Must have faith in the child dan develop humility. If something goes wrong jangan terburu-buru salahkan mereka. Tengok environment dan diri kita.
    • Kesabaran. Mesti tahu kanak-kanak bukan menyusahkan dan kita perlu perlahankan pace ikut mereka.
    • Perserverance

    The Montessori approach is a flexible approach that meets the truest, deepest needs of the universal child and the individual child. When it doesn’t seem to be working, we need to look at the foundation: prepared child, prepared adult, prepared environment (prepared to meet the human needs and tendencies – not requiring a room full of materials). If something is not quite there in one if those, the tripod is not strong. – Jessica Welsh from FB 

    You must prepare yourself first, before anything else – and that includes all the reading, yes, but it also includes being willing to look honestly at your self, your habits, your responses and reactions, and being willing to change them when needed. Are you able to allow your child the freedom, the mistakes and the exploration as well as to know when to set limits that don’t feel like limits because that is what is needed to develop deep concentration? Are you able to observe with enough objectivity to know when your child’s needs are not being met and what to shift in the environment to meet them? If you can do that, then you’ve got a Montessori environment. – Andy Lulka from FB 

    Salah satu aspek juga Mendengar.

    • Langkah pertama untuk rasa dihargai
    • “If the child does not have a model of what listening really means, she will not be able to do it, and will even lose the ability to listen to herself, her inner guidance.”[source]
    • Kanak-kanak rasa didengari bila: [source]
      • dewasa senyap bila mereka bercakap
      • dewasa paraphrase apa yang mereka dah cakap untuk clarify sebelum respond
      • dewasa beri kepercayaan kepada kebolehan kanak-kanak dan encourage independence while offering any necessary suggestions (since the child is coming to the adult for guidance or at minimum confirmation of the appropriate course of action or confirmation that the child’s words, thoughts, feelings and stories are valid).
      • Macamana nak respond? Dari kita biasa tanya, “Kenapa tak letak semula?” kita beri reminder, “Kerja masih tak siap ni, masih di lantai (contohnya). Siapkan kerja dulu baru mula yang baru.


    Baca dan belajar tentang ilmu perkembangan kanak-kanak dan Montessori untuk bantu perkembangan mereka. Juga kita sendiri jangan berhenti belajar, apa sahaja. Be a lifelong learner ourself.


    Kita belajar tentang material-materials, macamana didevelop, macamana nak present, teori disebalik materials, macamana nak prepare. Bila kita tahu dan faham ada yang boleh buat sendiri. Kita latih sendiri macamana nak gunakan dan nak sembahkan pada kanak-kanak supaya setiap pergerakan tepat sebab ini akan diperhatikan oleh kanak-kanak dan mereka akan ikut tiru.

    Perlu juga tahu bila untuk intervene atau  tak. Maintain balance antara freedom & responsibility.


    • Sihat dan bertenaga
    • Voice tone
    • Movements
    • Appearance: Must not be the focus or a distraction (extravagant clothing, hairstyles or flashy makeup, painted nails…)

    (*Susah juga nak cari sumber-sumber untuk prepared adult. The only two blogs yang share secara mendalam topik ni adalah Montessori Nuggets dan Montessori en Casa, jadi nota ni berasaskan kedua-dua blog ni, buku-buku Montessori yang dibaca dan discussion dalam Montessori groups.)

  • Montessori,  Montessori Notes,  Practical Life

    Perlu atau tidak Practical Life Shelf di rumah?

    Ada satu perbincangan yangg menarik dalam group. Tentang Practical Life Shelf dalam rumah. Perlu atau tidak?

    The trays for EPL are intended to focus on developing a particular skill; if the child has an appropriate “real life” location to practice that skill, then there is certainly no need for a “tray” on the shelf. Many people think of trays when they think of Montessori, but Montessori is about real life. Real life experiences. And isolation of skills/qualities (keys of the world as Montessori described them). So if a skill can be learned in its natural context, there is no need for a specifically practical life area. But we do need areas for cleaning supplies, and other ongoing practical purposes.